Lalele (tulipa): origine, varietăţi

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Laleaua (Tulipa) face parte din familia Liliaceae şi este un gen care cuprinde aproximativ 100 de specii de plante cu flori. Sînt originare din nordul Arficii, sudul Europei şi Asia (din China şi Japonia pînă în Anatolia şi Iran – unde floare apare pe drapelul naţional). Deşi Olanda este ţara europeană a lalelelor (primele lalele din Olanda au fost plantate la Universitatea Leiden în toamna anului 1593) împreună cu Turcia (care are un statut special), zonele în care se regăsesc multe specii de lalele sînt stepele din Kazakhstan şi Munţii Hindu Kush şi Pamir.

Originea numelui provine de la asemănarea cu pălăriile orientale: cuvîntul persan toliban înseamnă turban. Laleaua este întîlnită în foarte multe ţări prin gădini, parcuri şi terase datorită cultivării relativ uşoare şi a coloritului frumos. Lalelele pot fi „bătute” (cu floare dublă), cu margini zdrenţuite, asemănătoare cu crinul şi se găsesc într-o mulţime de nunaţe şi culori, de la alb la albastru închis, dar nu numai.

Lalele se înmulţesc atît pe cale sexuată (prin seminţe), cît şi asexuată (prin bulbi). La înmulţirea prin seminţe florile apar în al cincilea an, aşa că înmulţirea sexuată este folosită pentru obţinerea de sortimente noi. Pentru plantări se foloseşte înmuţirea asexuată, pentru aceasta trebuie aleşi bulbi sănătoşi, tari şi mari (diametrul de minim 3,5 cm) şi pot fi cultivaţi în casă. Speciile hibride pitice, care infloresc timpuriu, sînt cele mai bune pentru a fi plantate în casă: laleaua timpurie comună, laleaua „bătută” timpurie, laleaua Kaufman, laleaua Greigii.

How to start collecting vintage lunch boxes

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I never had a lunch box as a child (I am too young and on the wrong continent for that), but I have heard a lot of things during time about this North American habit that became an industry a few decades ago, between the 1950 and 1980s. Those decaded were even considered the Golden Age of lunch boxes, as the US’ baby boomers entered kindergarden and they needed to be fed regularly. But the story of the lunch boxes starts ealier, as the laborers carried latching lunch buckets made from toolbox-grade metal. In the years 1880 kids created lunckboxes from colorful tin cookie, biscuit or even tobacco boxes. The first lunckbox inspired from the pop culture was created in 1935 and featured Mickey Mouse.

The first popular lunchbox model was made by Alladin Industries, it was featuring Hopalong Cassidy, and the ohter companies followed suit, making their own lunch kits for children. In those decades there were sold over 120 million in US as the competition between companies developed into an industry as each company tried to capitalize on the popularity of cartoon series, television and movies. After 1950 everthing from Snoopy Dog, Tom and Jerry, Charlie Brown and Star Wars were emprinted on the lunck boxes all around United States. Some of them were sold along with a matching thermos.

Usually the vintage lunckboxes are made of vinyl, plastic or metal, most of them are square, while some feature a domed top.

Knowing this it will be easier for you know how to start collecting vintage lunch boxes:

Rube Goldberg and his inventive contraptions

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Reuben Garret Lucius Goldberg lived from July 4, 1883 to December 7, 1970 and he was and North American cartoonist, sculptor, inventor, engineer and author. His father led him to study engineering at the University of California at Berkeley. According to biography.com he graduated in 1904 and he started working as sewer system designer, but he left after only 4 months to become a sportswriter and cartoonist for the San Francisco Chronicle (until 1905), for San Francisco Bulletin (from 1905 to 1907) and New York Evening Mail (1907-1921) where he created 3 long running comic strips.